Fowl Typhoid
(Salmonella gallinarum)


Salmonella gallinarum infection primarily causes disease in chickens and turkeys, but ducks, pheasants, guinea-fowl, peafowl, grouse, and quail can also be affected. It is one of a group of diseases in poultry caused by Salmonella species which include Pullorum Disease, Arizona infection, and Paratyphoid Infection. Due to extensive testing and control by the poultry producers, Fowl Typhoid is rare in countries with a modern poultry industry. The disease has gained incidence in South America and other countries throughout Africa and Asia in recent year. Canada and the United States are presently free of the disease. This bacteria limits itself to avian species and is not known to cause disease in humans.

Outbreaks are characterized by increased mortality, anorexia, and a drop in egg production. A watery to mucoid yellow diarrhea is characteristic, and the birds are depressed with rapid breathing. Subacute outbreaks can occur, and egg transmission may lead to increased dead or weak chicks. Recovered birds may be carriers.

Control is related to blood testing for S. Pullorum, as the common antigenic structure of the bacteria leads to cross reaction. Elimination of pullorum positive reactors will effectively decrease S. gallinarum infection. National programs in many countries have virtually eliminated this and Pullorum disease.

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References:

Surveillance: Special Issue - Exotic Diseases, Vol 23, 1996
MAF Regulatory Authority, Ministry of Agriculture
P.O. Box 2526, Wellington, New Zealand

Poultry Diseases, Fourth Edition
Jordon, F.T.W. and Pattison, M., Editors
W.B. Saunders Company Ltd., London, 1996 , ISBN 0-7020-1912-7

Notifiable Diseases: Special Issue of the State Veterinary Journal,
Vol. 5 No. 3, October 1995

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, United Kingdom ISSN:0269 5545

Exotic Diseases of Animals: A Field Guide for Australian Veterinarians
Geering, W.A., Forman, A.J. and Nunn, M.J.
Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1995, ISBN 0 644 33513 0

Avian Disease Manual, Third Edition
Whiteman, C.E. and Bickford, A.A.
American Association of Avian Pathologists
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company,Dubuque, Iowa, ISBN 0-8403-5795-8

The Merck Veterinary Manual, 6th Edition, Editor: Fraser, C.M.
Merck & Co., Inc, Rahway, N.J., U.S.A., 1986, ISBN 911910-53-0